Didnât read the links, so I donât know what Iâm repeating orâŚ

There are many ways to make a digital converter, just like there are many ways to build a house (wood framed with stucco and drywall, bricks and mortarâŚ).

Probably the most straight forward way is a flash converter: You have a series resistor string to ground with the input voltage at top, and at each junction a comparatorâyou see which ones light up, and encode that into a digital word. 256 compactors for 8-bit, 65526 for 16âŚno you wonât be using these for audio, gets impractical real fast. (But I used to work for a company that sold them for $500 each for an 8-bit converter for video, decades agoâreal fast).

The most basic realistic converter for audio is a successive-approximation converter (based on a SARâsuccessive approximation register). A basic and accurate DAC is pretty simple to make, so this method leverages a DAC. A SAR ADC basically takes a digital guess, then compares the voltage output of the DAC to the input voltage. Too low, it guesses higher, and too high it guesses lower. Using a binary search, it doesnât take that many guesses. And thereâs plenty of time between samples. To get the input voltage to hold still over that time, there is a âsample and holdâ stepâbasically charging a small capacitor quickly then disconnecting it to hold that value.

There are other variations of that, running at a higher interval rate and using a smaller DACâall the way down to one-bit. But thatâs it in a nutshell.